Category: eclipse

“According to the Relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property…

“According to the Relativists, space has a tendency to curvature owing to an inherent property or presence of celestial bodies. Granting a semblance of reality to this fantastic idea, it is still self-contradictory. Every action is accompanied by an equivalent reaction and the effects of the latter are directly opposite to those of the former. Supposing that the bodies act upon the surrounding space causing curvature of the same, it appears to my simple mind that the curved spaces must react on the bodies and, producing the opposite effects, straighten out the curves. Since action and reaction are coexistent, it follows that the supposed curvature of space is entirely impossible. But even if it existed it would not explain the motions of the bodies as observed. Only the existence of a field of force can account for them and its assumption dispenses with space curvature. All literature on this subject is futile and destined to oblivion. So are also all attempts to explain the workings of the universe without recognizing the existence of the ether and the indispensable function it plays in the phenomena.”

–Nikola Tesla

DYNAMIC THEORY OF GRAVITY.” July 10, 1937 (Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance).

3 incredible eclipse expeditions throughout history that shaped modern scienceAug. 18, 1868 One…

3 incredible eclipse expeditions throughout history that shaped modern science

Aug. 18, 1868

One scholar argues the first true eclipse expedition came in 1868. The king of Siam (now Thailand) at the time, Mongkut, had spent 27 years
as a Buddhist monk and studying astronomy as a hobby before becoming
king.

So when
he realized a solar eclipse was coming, he was determined to see i
t —
and to bring both foreigners and subjects along for the experience. He
calculated it was due to pass over a remote corner of jungle called Wako, southwest of Bangkok, on Aug. 18, 1868.

He ordered a palace to be built on the site and headed out with his heir and a thousand courtiers. While European scientists observed the unusually long totality,
Mongkut led a series of religious rituals, balancing science with
spirituality.

Unfortunately for Mongkut, Wako was full of mosquitos, and he caught malaria and died soon after his triumphant return.

July 29, 1878

The western U.S. had a chance to shine in 1878, when a total solar eclipse was due to pass over the Rockies.

Cleveland Abbe, who later founded the National Weather Service, headed to Pike’s Peak hoping to watch the eclipse at 14,000 feet above sea level.

Unfortunately,
Abbe came down with a serious case of cerebral edema, or brain
swelling, from the altitude, and had to be carried down the mountain —
despite his loud protestations.

Maria Mitchell, an astronomer at Vassar College,
gathered a group of her graduates in hopes of promoting women in
astronomy
and headed west, where her experience was also a bit rocky.
The railroads lost their luggage and they spent their time out west in tents.

Even Thomas Edison was eager to catch the 1878 eclipse, traveling to Wyoming to see it and to measure how hot the sun’s outer layer is. He failed; the instrument he developed wasn’t up to measuring the sun’s incredible heat.

Jan. 3, 1908

The Lick Observatory
in California decided a total eclipse predicted for 1908 was worth
quite a schlep.

The observatory’s director, William Wallace Campbell, tackled the logistics
of getting to the middle of the Pacific, setting off in November the
previous year, first with a 12-day steamer ride from San Francisco to
Tahiti and then with a lift from a U.S. gunboat to reach the remote
Flint Island on Dec. 9.

Read more (8/16/17) | follow @the-future-now

So you forgot to make eclipse plans. Here’s how to watch it…

So you forgot to make eclipse plans. Here’s how to watch it without glasses or from your office.

  • Let’s say you can get outside during the eclipse — remember, the celestial action will coincide with lunchtime — but you couldn’t get your hands on a pair of eclipse glasses.
  • The key here is really simple: Whatever you do, don’t actually look at the sun.
  • Instead,
    build a projector. “Build” may sound daunting, but no major crafting
    skills are required.
  • All you need to do is create a small hole that will
    invert the sun’s light, creating a flipped image of the disappearing and reappearing sun as the eclipse progresses.
  • You can use basically anything to make that happen — index cards and a thumbtack, your fingers, a cereal box, a colander.
  • You have these things. You can do this. If you project the sun onto a sheet of paper, you can even incorporate it into drawings. Go wild.
  • Say
    you can’t get outside at all, or it’s raining, or you want to see the
    phenomenon from a better location. Are you by a TV? Flip to CNN or NASA TV. Just got your phone or tablet? Watch it on an app. You can even watch it in virtual reality. Read more (8/16/17)

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To celebrate the total solar eclipse, this 73-year-old grandma…

To celebrate the total solar eclipse, this 73-year-old grandma is planning an epic family reunion

  • Claudia Tropila, an attorney
    based in Fountain Valley, California, has always been obsessed with
    astronomy.
  • She inherited the passion for space from her father, Cooper
    Lindley, who oversaw the design of ground support equipment for
    the Apollo Program.
  • After he helped his daughter secure a summer internship predating the first moon landing, Tropila was totally hooked.
  • Now 73, Tropila passed her adoration of all things celestial
    to her kids, Diane Parazin and John Tropila, who then passed it on to
    their children.
  • So it wasn’t hard to get her family on board to plan the
    eclipse trip of a lifetime back in 2015. Read more (8/15/17)

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The solar eclipse glasses you bought might be fake — here’s how…

The solar eclipse glasses you bought might be fake — here’s how to tell

  • If you purchased eclipse
    glasses through Amazon, be sure to check your email — the company
    announced Aug. 12 that it was recalling and refunding certain glasses
    after they decided to double-check the safety certification. (If you
    didn’t get an email, you’re in the clear.)
  • Not having safe glasses or relying on a product that isn’t up to snuff could cause
    irreversible eye damage.
  • If
    you aren’t sure whether your glasses are safe, dig them up and take a
    look at the fine print that likely covers the frames. You’re looking for
    two key pieces of information:
    the designation “ISO 12312-2” (sometimes that’s followed by :2015, which is just fine) and the manufacturer name. Read more (8/15/17)

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Why the eclipse is moving from east to westThe sun rises in the…

Why the eclipse is moving from east to west

  • The
    sun rises in the east because Earth is rotating in that direction, so
    surely the total solar eclipse on August 21 should also start in the east and move west, right? Nope!
    The eclipse will start near Newport, Oregon, at 10:15
    a.m. Pacific and end near Charleston, South Carolina, at 2:49 p.m.
    Eastern.
  • The
    key to the eclipse’s seemingly strange path is the moon, which orbits
    around the Earth from west to east — or counterclockwise, if you were
    hovering in space way above the North Pole. Read more (8/14/17)

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People around the world have been studying eclipses for millennia.ChinaChina’s records of eclipses…

People around the world have been studying eclipses for millennia.

China

China’s records of eclipses go way back — to Oct. 22, 2137 BC, when, the official records report,
“the Sun and Moon could not live peacefully together in the sky.”

And
that was just the first total solar eclipse that made it into the
history books — in fact, one scholar tracked down records of 916 solar
eclipses between 2137 BC and 1785 AD in Chinese bureaucracy and
literature.

In ancient China, people tied
eclipses to politics. One astronomer’s failure to anticipate a solar
eclipse that was dated to either 2137 BC or 2110 BC, reportedly resulted
in his downfall.

Babylon

Babylonians were observing eclipses by the seventh century BC and predicting them by the third century BC.

Those predictions relied on identifying what were later called Saros cycles — in which approximately every 18 years, the sun, moon and Earth line up in similar ways and create an eclipse over a new swath of Earth.

Australia

Some scholars argue
that thousands of years ago, Aboriginal Australians were also studying
eclipses and other relationships between the sun, moon, and Earth.

But
because of colonization and the cultural damage it brought, it’s
difficult to piece together when that might have begun, what precisely
Aboriginal Australians were watching and how they explained it.

Europe

The cultures around the
ancient Mediterranean, including the Greeks and Romans, turned their
eyes to the eclipse too, including during one sixth century BC battle
that an eclipse allegedly put an end to.

The famous Antikythera
Mechanism, a mechanical computing device built in the second century BC,
included a gear for counting 223-month Saros cycles picked up from the Babylonians.

The Enlightenment and beyond

Eclipse observations continued throughout the Arab and European
worlds during the medieval period and into the Renaissance, but without
much real advancement in technique or science to accompany them.

That
began to change in the very late 1600s and into the 1700s, particularly
thanks to Edmond Halley, the astronomer who also studied the comet that
now shares his name. He’s responsible for naming Saros cycles, the 18-year realignments the Babylonians had noticed when studying eclipses more than 2000 years prior.

Modern eclipse science

But despite this long history, modern eclipse science only really emerged in the 1860s,
facilitated by the rise of new technologies like spectroscopy and
photography, which meant that scientists could gather more than just
observational data.

The first known photograph of the sun’s corona was
snapped during the eclipse of July 28, 1851
in what is now Kaliningrad, Russia. And the new field of astrophysics
meant it was popular to study the sun as the best star to observe from
Earth. Read more (8/14/17)

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***Nikola Tesla’s Views On the Moon And A Solar Eclipse***“Three…

***Nikola Tesla’s Views On the Moon And A Solar Eclipse***

“Three theories have been advanced for the origin of the moon. According to the oldest suggested by the great German philosopher Kant, and developed by Laplace in his monumental treatise “Mécanique Céleste,” the planets have been thrown off from larger central masses by centrifugal force. Nearly forty years ago Prof. George H. Darwin in a masterful essay on tidal friction furnished mathematical proofs, deemed unrefutable, that the moon had separated from the earth. Recently this established theory has been attacked by Prof. T. J. J. See in a remarkable work on the “Evolution of the Stellar Systems,” in which he propounds the view that centrifugal force was altogether inadequate to bring about the separation and that all, including the moon, have come from the depths of space and have been captured. Still a third hypothesis of unknown origin exists which has been examined and commented upon by Prof. W. H. Pickering in “Popular Astronomy of 1907,” and according to which the moon was torn from the earth when the later was partially solidified, this accounting for the continents which might not have been formed otherwise.

“Undoubtedly planets and satellites have originated in both ways and, in my opinion, it is not difficult to ascertain the character of their birth. The following conclusions can be safely drawn:

“1. A heavenly body thrown off from a larger one cannot rotate on its axis. The mass, rendered fluid by the combined action of heat and pressure, upon the reduction of the latter immediately stiffens, being at the same time deformed by gravitational pull. The shape becomes permanent upon cooling and solidification and the smaller mass continues to move about the larger one as tho it were rigidly connected to it except for pendular swings or librations due to varying orbital velocity. Such motion precludes the possibility of axial rotation in the strictly physical sense. The moon has never spun around as is well demonstrated by the fact that the most precise measurements have failed to show any measurable flattening in form.

“2. If a planetary body in its orbital movement turns the same side towards the central mass this is a positive proof that it has been separated from the latter and is a true satellite.

“3. A planet revolving on its axis in its passage around another cannot have been thrown off from the same but must have been captured.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Famous Scientific Illusions.” Electrical Experimenter, February, 1919.

“You know that in a solar eclipse the moon comes between the sun and the earth, and that its shadow is projected upon the earth’s surface [Figure 3].  Evidently, in a given moment, the shadow will just touch at a mathematical point, the earth, assuming it to be a sphere.

“Let us imagine that my transmitter is located at this point, and that the current generated by it now passes through the earth.  It does not pass through the earth in the ordinary acceptance of the term, it only penetrates to a certain depth according to the frequency.  Most of it goes on the surface, but with frequencies such as I employ, it will dive a few miles below.  It can be mathematically shown that it is immaterial how it passes; the aggregate effect of these currents is as if the whole current passes from the transmitter, which I call the pole, to the opposite point, which I call the antipode.

“Assume, then, that here is the transmitter, and imagine that this is the surface of the sea, and that now comes the shadow of the moon and touches, on a mathematical point, the calm ocean.  You can readily see that as the surface of the water, owing to the enormous radius of the earth, is nearly a plane, that point where the shadow falls will immediately, on the slightest motion of the shadow downward, enlarge the circle at a terrific rate, and it can be shown mathematically that this rate is infinite.  In other words, this half-circle on this side will fly over the globe as the shadow goes down; will first start at infinite velocity to enlarge, and then slower and slower and slower, and as the moon’s shadow goes further and further and further, it will get slower and slower until, finally, when the three bodies are on the plane of the ecliptic, right in line one with the other in the same plane, then that shadow will pass over the globe with its true velocity in space.  Exactly that same thing happens in the application of my system, and I will show this next.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.” Twenty First Century Books,
Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

For $401, you can get a front seat to the total solar eclipse…

For $401, you can get a front seat to the total solar eclipse on a Delta flight

  • The upcoming solar eclipse has sent some Americans into a frenzy trying to find last-minute solutions
    to view the once-in-a-lifetime event.
  • Delta has a standard flight
    path
    from Portland, Oregon, to Atlanta which not only follows the
    majority of the eclipse’s path, but will also be airborne during the
    event.
  • This option was recently discovered by Todd Evans,
    who overlaid the path of the flight with the path of the eclipse using
    FlightAware and NASA’s eclipse data and shared his findings on Reddit.
  • Passengers
    on Delta flight 2466 will get an above-the-clouds, low-atmosphere
    vantage point
    with no more hassle than what airport security provides.
    This is a surefire way to avoid eclipse traffic; in fact, it’s probably
    the most relaxed way to experience the eclipse firsthand in its
    totality. Read more (8/10/17)

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The solar eclipse might do some strange things to animals The…

The solar eclipse might do some strange things to animals 

  • The upcoming Aug. 21 total solar eclipse will shroud thousands of people in temporary darkness across the continental United States. But we’re not the only ones affected. Animals may react strangely to the event.
  • Though “there has not been a
    lot of serious research done on animal behavior” during a solar
    eclipses, according to Fienberg, a handful of observational reports have
    cropped up over the last few decades.
  • There are stories of sudden silence from screeching cicadas
    in Tuscon, Arizona, starting when the sun was about 50% covered.
  • And as a false sense of night drew near, bees in India grew restless and started leaving their hives and captive squirrels in California reportedly became more active.
  • “What
    basically happens is the natural world gets confused,” Fienberg said.
    “Sunrise has already occurred and [animals are] going about their normal
    daily business when, all the sudden, it gets dark — and pretty fast.” Read more (8/10/17)

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