Category: energy

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Nikola Tesla On His “World Wireless System”

“By this invention every live part of Mother Earth’s body would be brought into action. Energy will be collected all over the globe in amounts small or large, as it may exist, ranging from a fraction of one to a few horse power or more. Every waterfall can be utilized, every coal field made to produce energy to be transmitted to vast distances, and every place on earth can have power at small cost. One of the minor uses might be the illumination of isolated homes. We could light houses all over the country by means of vacuum tubes operated by high frequency currents. We could keep the clocks of the United States going and give every one exact time; we could turn factories, machine shops and mills, small or large, anywhere, and I believe could also navigate the air.

“One of the most important features of this invention will be the transmission of intelligence. It will convert the entire earth into a huge brain, capable of responding in every one of its parts. By the employment of a number of plants, each of which can transmit signals to all parts of the world, the news of the globe will be flashed to all points. A cheap and simple receiving device, which might be carried in one’s pocket, can be set up anywhere on sea or land, and it will record the world’s news as it occurs, or take such special messages as are intended for it. If you are in the heart of the Sahara your wife can telegraph you from Washington, and if the instrument is properly made you alone will get the message. A single plant of a few horse power could operate hundreds of such instruments, so that the invention has an infinite working capacity and will cheapen the transmission of all kinds of intelligence.”

–Nikola Tesla

“A Talk With Nikola Tesla.” By Frank G. Carpenter. The State, December 18, 1904.

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froggy2nite:

froggy2nite:

THIS IS GOLD!!!!

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Ahead of his time! 🐐

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NIKOLA TESLA: THE FIRST JEDI

Method of Lighting Wireless Vacuum Tubes Devoid of Any Electrodes Placed In An Alternating Electrostatic Field.

In 1891, just before becoming an American citizen, Nikola Tesla was asked to lecture before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at the Columbia University in New York. He performed experiments with alternating currents of very high frequency and left an audience of America’s greatest engineers spell-bound as he demonstrated a new theory of light. This lecture would be the first public demonstration of transmitting wireless energy, making Tesla the true father of radio and wireless power.

Throughout his investigations of alternating currents of very high frequency phenomena, Tesla satisfied himself with the conclusion that light bulbs using carbon filaments were inferior, and that an electric field of sufficient intensity could be made to fill a room and light electrodeless vacuum tubes. This was done by connecting two large sheets of zinc to the terminal of the circuit with the sheets being spread apart about fifteen feet away from each other. The sheets served as condensers, and both received the charge of electricity from the wires connecting the sheets to the transformer, creating an electric field between the two. Tesla would then introduce vacuum tubes and place them between the zinc sheets–illuminating the tubes and lighting the room. He waved the vacuum tubes around like a Jedi showcasing the first light sabers, and the tubes continued to glow as long as they remained in the electric field.

He accomplished this by upping the speed of his dynamo, transforming his alternating currents into a continuous flow of static currents. This allowed him to pass a large amount of energy from sheet to sheet, or even through his body, without any harm. To help better explain this, direct currents carry an electric charge along a conductor which travel in one single direction, like a straight line, while the charge in AC alternate back and forth in waveform. Both are extremely dangerous! Static currents, on the other hand, are stationary with no movement. Tesla would speed up his AC so fast that they would transform into a static current, allowing him to create a static field of electricity capable of lighting his wireless bulbs.

The electrical wizard went on to show the absolute harmlessness of his electric system by passing thousands of volts of electricity through his body–lighting light bulbs and shooting sparks out of his finger tips.

These amazing demonstrations would set Tesla apart from the rest of the scientific world, and the inventor would be showered with awards and invitations from all around the world begging him to share his work.

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drnikolatesla:

“EARTH ELECTRICITY TO KILL MONOPOLY.”

***A Way to Harness Free Electric Currents Discovered by Nikola Tesla***

The World Sunday Magazine, March 8, 1896.

The World is on the eve of an astounding revelation. The conditions under which we exist will be changed. The end has come to telegraph and telephone monopolies with a crash. Incidentally, all the other monopolies that depend on power of any kind will come to a sudden stop. The earth currents of electricity are to be harnessed. Nature supplies them free of charge. The cost of power and light and heat will be practically nothing.

The scientist-electricians who have for years been trying to master the mystery of electrical earth currents with which the ground beneath your feet is filled, are on the threshold of success. The success of the experiments they have under way means much to them, but vastly more to the people. It means that if Nikola Tesla succeeds in harnessing the electrical earth currents and putting then to work for man there will be an end to oppressive, extortionate monopolies in steam, telephone, telegraphs and the other commercial uses of electricity, and that the grasping millionaires who have for two decades milked the people’s purse with electrical fingers will have to relinquish their monopoly.

Nikola Tesla has discovered the secret of the electric earth currents of nature, and they will be adapted to the use of man. He has succeeded in transmitting sound by the currents that make an electric riot of the earth. The transmission of power will follow. His experiments reduced to commercially practicable uses will be able to tap the electric currents of the earth and make them serve the purposes of industry and of trade just as a well digger over on Long Island taps water or a Pennsylvania miner opens a vein of coal. The mighty electrical energy that has been stored up in the earth for ages will be harnessed and made to move the machinery of men.

Electricity will be as free as the air. For the privilege of its use legislatures will not have to be bribed or men corrupted at the polls, and public boards will not have to be “seen” to bestow exclusive franchises upon corporations organized to use public property for purposes of private gain, and make the people pay the original cost of their investment and excessive charges for service in order to squeeze dividends out of copiously watered shares.

Monopolies for purveying steams power too will be forced to capitulate to free electricity, for with the latter manufactures will only have to connect their dynamos with the earth currents to set their machinery in motion. The successful adaptation of Tesla’s discovery will administer a death-blow to the most galling slavery that has ever yoked the activities of men to the treadmill of monopoly. Tesla is the wizard who is going to emancipate modern industries from the shackles of corrupting, dividend-grabbing, monopolistic corporations.

Sound travels with amazing speed, but electrical vibrations travel so swiftly that it is difficult to conjure up a figure which will graphically illustrate their speed. Here is one that will perhaps convey a vivid and lucid impression. In fancy place yourself at a table with a revolver in one hand and a finger of the other hand on the key of a telegraph instrument connected with a wire that girdles the globe seven times and laps over on the eighth turn a distance equal to 11,000 miles. Pull the trigger of the pistol and simultaneously press the telegraph key.  While the sound of the report of the revolver is traveling 1,100 feet the electrical impulse imparted by the pressure on the key will pass seven and a half times around the world through the wire with which the key is connected.

Sound travels 1,250 feet a second and electrical impulse 186,000 miles a second. If the electrical currents with which the earth is filled can be harnessed and put to work a new era in electricity will have dawned. It is to the mastering of the mystery of these earth currents and their adaptation that scientist like Tesla have been striving.

In the course of Tesla’s experiments it is reported he found that in the vicinity of large cities there were so many conflicting earth currents that satisfactory results could not be obtained. So he went out to Denver and near there found a better field for experimenting.  There he met a friend interested in electrical research. They went to Pike’s Peak.  Conspicuous among their baggage were two autoharps.

Tesla and his friend scaled the rugged sides of the peak. At an elevation agreed upon they separated. Tesla skirted the peak and on reaching a point precisely opposite the place at which he left his friend he stopped. The two experimenters, on a line drawn straight through the peak, were thus separated by four miles of stratified rock. The two autoharps had been very delicately attuned before the scientists parted, and a time fixed for Mr. Tesla’s comrade to play an air (also agreed upon) on the autoharp.

Tesla waited patiently the arrival of the appointed time. Then he connected his harp with the ground in such a way as to secure harmonic resonance with the earth current. The manner and medium of this connection are secrets. The receiving autoharp was equipped with a microphone. As the time approached for his friend on the other side of the peak to strum the appointed tune Tesla listened with rapt attention.

At last, as a tuning-fork responds to its harmonic note sounded on the strings of a piano, the autoharp in Mr. Tesla’s hands gave out the harmonic tunes of “Ben Bolt” which his companion at his station four miles away straight through the peak was plucking from the tense wires of his instrument. The experiment was a success. After many tunes had been played Tesla and his companion descended the peak. A statement of the facts and results of the experiment was written and attested before a notary public as a matter of scientific record.

The electric currents are in the earth. Their strength is great enough to furnish all the power and light man needs. Mr. Tesla has overcome the initial difficulty, and has located and tapped the earth’s currents. The rest will follow, as followed the telephone, Prof. Bell’s discovery of how to transmit speech over a wire.

Reposting this again because this was only 1896. Tesla went on a killing spree with electricity after this and proved his theories through experiments at Colorado Springs. Everything after 1899 was just Tesla trying to commercially bring it forth to the public.

*share this please*

Regular

“EARTH ELECTRICITY TO KILL MONOPOLY.”

***A Way to Harness Free Electric Currents Discovered by Nikola Tesla***

The World Sunday Magazine, March 8, 1896.

The World is on the eve of an astounding revelation. The conditions under which we exist will be changed. The end has come to telegraph and telephone monopolies with a crash. Incidentally, all the other monopolies that depend on power of any kind will come to a sudden stop. The earth currents of electricity are to be harnessed. Nature supplies them free of charge. The cost of power and light and heat will be practically nothing.

The scientist-electricians who have for years been trying to master the mystery of electrical earth currents with which the ground beneath your feet is filled, are on the threshold of success. The success of the experiments they have under way means much to them, but vastly more to the people. It means that if Nikola Tesla succeeds in harnessing the electrical earth currents and putting then to work for man there will be an end to oppressive, extortionate monopolies in steam, telephone, telegraphs and the other commercial uses of electricity, and that the grasping millionaires who have for two decades milked the people’s purse with electrical fingers will have to relinquish their monopoly.

Nikola Tesla has discovered the secret of the electric earth currents of nature, and they will be adapted to the use of man. He has succeeded in transmitting sound by the currents that make an electric riot of the earth. The transmission of power will follow. His experiments reduced to commercially practicable uses will be able to tap the electric currents of the earth and make them serve the purposes of industry and of trade just as a well digger over on Long Island taps water or a Pennsylvania miner opens a vein of coal. The mighty electrical energy that has been stored up in the earth for ages will be harnessed and made to move the machinery of men.

Electricity will be as free as the air. For the privilege of its use legislatures will not have to be bribed or men corrupted at the polls, and public boards will not have to be “seen” to bestow exclusive franchises upon corporations organized to use public property for purposes of private gain, and make the people pay the original cost of their investment and excessive charges for service in order to squeeze dividends out of copiously watered shares.

Monopolies for purveying steams power too will be forced to capitulate to free electricity, for with the latter manufactures will only have to connect their dynamos with the earth currents to set their machinery in motion. The successful adaptation of Tesla’s discovery will administer a death-blow to the most galling slavery that has ever yoked the activities of men to the treadmill of monopoly. Tesla is the wizard who is going to emancipate modern industries from the shackles of corrupting, dividend-grabbing, monopolistic corporations.

Sound travels with amazing speed, but electrical vibrations travel so swiftly that it is difficult to conjure up a figure which will graphically illustrate their speed. Here is one that will perhaps convey a vivid and lucid impression. In fancy place yourself at a table with a revolver in one hand and a finger of the other hand on the key of a telegraph instrument connected with a wire that girdles the globe seven times and laps over on the eighth turn a distance equal to 11,000 miles. Pull the trigger of the pistol and simultaneously press the telegraph key.  While the sound of the report of the revolver is traveling 1,100 feet the electrical impulse imparted by the pressure on the key will pass seven and a half times around the world through the wire with which the key is connected.

Sound travels 1,250 feet a second and electrical impulse 186,000 miles a second. If the electrical currents with which the earth is filled can be harnessed and put to work a new era in electricity will have dawned. It is to the mastering of the mystery of these earth currents and their adaptation that scientist like Tesla have been striving.

In the course of Tesla’s experiments it is reported he found that in the vicinity of large cities there were so many conflicting earth currents that satisfactory results could not be obtained. So he went out to Denver and near there found a better field for experimenting.  There he met a friend interested in electrical research. They went to Pike’s Peak.  Conspicuous among their baggage were two autoharps.

Tesla and his friend scaled the rugged sides of the peak. At an elevation agreed upon they separated. Tesla skirted the peak and on reaching a point precisely opposite the place at which he left his friend he stopped. The two experimenters, on a line drawn straight through the peak, were thus separated by four miles of stratified rock. The two autoharps had been very delicately attuned before the scientists parted, and a time fixed for Mr. Tesla’s comrade to play an air (also agreed upon) on the autoharp.

Tesla waited patiently the arrival of the appointed time. Then he connected his harp with the ground in such a way as to secure harmonic resonance with the earth current. The manner and medium of this connection are secrets. The receiving autoharp was equipped with a microphone. As the time approached for his friend on the other side of the peak to strum the appointed tune Tesla listened with rapt attention.

At last, as a tuning-fork responds to its harmonic note sounded on the strings of a piano, the autoharp in Mr. Tesla’s hands gave out the harmonic tunes of “Ben Bolt” which his companion at his station four miles away straight through the peak was plucking from the tense wires of his instrument. The experiment was a success. After many tunes had been played Tesla and his companion descended the peak. A statement of the facts and results of the experiment was written and attested before a notary public as a matter of scientific record.

The electric currents are in the earth. Their strength is great enough to furnish all the power and light man needs. Mr. Tesla has overcome the initial difficulty, and has located and tapped the earth’s currents. The rest will follow, as followed the telephone, Prof. Bell’s discovery of how to transmit speech over a wire.

Regular

“TESLA, SURE LIFE EXISTS ON OTHER PLANETS, WORKS ON AT 76 TO ESTABLISH HIS BELIEF.”

New York World Telegram, July 9th, 1932.

by William Engle

Energy Transmission Is the First Requisite, Says Veteran Scientist.

Nikola Tesla discussed communication between the earth and other planets today as if he regarded this as a feat no neater than telephoning to the cordial shop around the corner.

translationTomorrow he will be 76. It will be forty-six years since he came, a shy, unheralded youth, from the Province of Lika, in Eastern Austria. But the fire of his tremendous endeavor seemed to burn as fiercely this morning as it has any time down the years in which he has established his prominent place among scientists.

Interplanetary communication is only one phase of that endeavor, he hurried to say. Annihilation of distance, he said, sums it up; annihilation of distance by transmission of energy.

Certain of Life Elsewhere.

“I am in dead earnest.” He spoke quietly and carefully. “I feel certain of what I tell you.

“The transmission of energy to another planet is only a matter of engineering. I have solved the problem so well I don’t regard it as doubtful.”

He is certain, too, he said, that there are creatures on other planets whose ways are like the ways of those on this one.

“It is mathematically certain that other planets are inhabited. Every other planet has to pass through practically the same phase of existence the earth did, and life is started on them, during that favorable phase, by rays of some sun.

“It develops in the presence of moisture and heat and light in much the same manner as life does on the earth.

Interplanetary Forum.

“We know that light propagates in straight lines, and consequently our perceptions of the forms through the images projected on the retina must be true.

“Therefore, it should not be hard to establish intelligent exchange of ideas between two planets.”

The earth, he thinks, might be the beneficiary.

“It is conceivable that there is civilization on other planets far ahead of ours. If communication were established by the earth, the consequences to human beings would be incalculable.”

Busy in Laboratory.

He had been at work all day in his mid-town laboratory. Characteristically, he did not want to say much about it. As it always did, it concerns fundamentals; the application may come decades after his success in principle, as it has in radio and high-tension electricity.

“I’m giving all my time to annihilation of distance. Same as ever. To my mind that’s the most important achievement to be hoped for in the furtherance of the intellectual development of man, as well as in the promotion of his material welfare.

Radio Just a Step.

“The wireless art already fulfills this in a large measure, but we must establish transmission of power in all its innumerable applications.

“This has been my life work and I hope to see its full fruition before I am gathered to my forefathers.”

Spruce and slim, with cane and gloves and a tailored air, he did not look 50 as he rose and stood by a desk on the mezzanine floor of the hotel where, a recluse among millions, he takes cover.

Longs for His Wine.

About him there was none of the traditional coldness of the pure scientist. He felt, he said like a boy.

Why? Well, no coffee and no tea, for one thing. Another, he has never been married. He would be even more fit, he thinks, if they had not taken his wine away.

“Just the same I could climb a tree 100 feet tall.”

Regular

drnikolatesla:

The Greatest Scientific Experiments of All-Time

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If you search the web for the greatest, or most famous experiments in history, no site will mention any of the many experiments conducted by Nikola Tesla. What you will find are wonderful, and very important experiments–like those of Isaac Newton, Galileo Galilee, William Harvey, Michael Faraday and Luigi Galvani, but nothing about Tesla, whose investigations into electricity make history’s more recognized experiments look like high school science. Many people today do not know that Nikola Tesla was one of the greatest experimental scientists of all-time.

Throughout the scientist’s investigations into high frequency phenomena, Tesla satisfied himself with a conclusion that an electrostatic field of sufficient intensity could fill a room and light wireless lamps. In 1891, he demonstrated this fact in a lecture given before the American Institute of Electrical Engineers, and left an audience of America’s greatest engineers spell-bound as he demonstrated by experiments a new theory of light. He showed that by connecting two large sheets of zinc to the terminals of a circuit with the sheets being spread apart about fifteen feet away from each other, he could create an electrostatic field between the two. The sheets served as condensers, and both received the charge of electricity from the wires connecting the sheets to the transformer. Tesla would then introduce vacuum tubes and place them between the zinc sheets, illuminating the tubes and lighting the room. He waved the vacuum tubes around like a Jedi showcasing the first light sabers, and the tubes continued to glow as long as they remained in the electric field. With these results, Tesla theorized that it was possible to use the earth as a conductor of energy, create an electrostatic field in it, and send power to distant parts of the globe. 

To further develop and prove his wireless theory, Tesla spent time in Colorado Springs, from June 1, 1899 to January 7, 1900, to research and experiment with high voltage and high frequency electricity. He chose Colorado Springs because of the high elevation and low air pressure suitable for experimenting with electricity. Also, because he was in such as open area compared to his lab in New York that he was free to experiment with any such desire of voltage and frequency. With his new and improved disruptive coils (Tesla Coils), which could produce electrical vibrations into the millions of horsepower, Tesla was set test the limits of electricity. 

It’s clear from his notes that his principal aim was to find ways to manipulate the forces of nature and to utilize them for the advancement of mankind. He expressed that he had three main goals:

  1. To develop a transmitter of great power.
  2. To perfect means for individualizing and isolating the energy transmitted.
  3. To ascertain the laws of propagation of currents through the earth and the atmosphere.

In his 7 months of work, Tesla obtained voltage and frequencies in the hundreds of millions of horse power, producing sparks over 100 feet in length. He sent energy through the earth to light multiple lamps which were placed dozens of miles away from his transmitter, and discovered stationary waves deriving from lightning discharges which his receiver could detect hundreds of miles away from his station–a discovery proving that power could indeed be transmitted through the earth. He also discovered that the earth, as a whole, had certain natural periods of vibrations, and by using his inventions he could impress electrical vibrations at the same periods upon it, and the globe would be thrown into oscillations of such nature that massive amounts of energy could be created, collected, and transmitted to any distance. This process is called constructive interference (the interference of two or more waves of equal frequencies resulting in mutual reinforcement and producing double the amplitude). By doing this repeatedly, and by using the massive amounts of energy unheard of before, Tesla was able to transmit energy from his transmitter all the way around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. Witnessing these experiments and measurements, space, according to Tesla, was completely annihilated.

Fully confident that he accomplished what he set out for, Tesla journeyed back to New York to patent improved apparatuses, and to build a new system on a much larger scale. This would lead to his World Wireless System, known as his Wardenclyffe Tower. Unfortunately, Tesla would not complete his dream of providing mankind with cheap, unlimited energy… But his legacy and his dream should live on through these experiments in Colorado Springs.

“My project was retarded by the laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.”

–Nikola Tesla

(“My Inventions – V. The Magnifying Transmitter.” Electrical Experimenter. February, 1919.)

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[Fig. 1.] — Nikola Tesla’s building in Colorado Springs which he called his “Experimental Station.”

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[Fig. 2.] — Experiment to Illustrate the Capacity of the Oscillator For Producing Electrical Explosions of Great Power: The coil, partly shown in the photograph, creates an alternative movement of electricity from the earth into a large reservoir and back at a rate of one hundred thousand alternations per second. The adjustments are such that the reservoir is fulled full and bursts at each alternation just at the moment when the electrical pressure reaches the maximum. The discharge escapes with a deafening noise, striking an unconnected coil twenty-two feet away, and creating such a commotion of electricity in the earth that sparks an inch long can be drawn from a water main at a distance of three hundred feet from the laboratory.

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[Fig. 3.] — Coils Responding to Electrical Oscillations: The picture shows a number of coils , differently attuned and responding to the vibrations transmitted to them through the earth from an electrical oscillator. The large coil on the right, discharging strongly, is tuned to the fundamental vibration, which is fifty thousand per second; the two larger vertical coils to twice that number; the smaller white wire coil to four times that number, and the remaining small coils to higher tones. The vibrations produced by the oscillator were so intense that they affected perceptibly a small coil tuned to the twenty-sixth higher tone.

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[Fig. 4.] — Burning the Nitrogen of the Atmosphere: This result is produced by the discharge of an electrical oscillator giving twelve million volts. The electrical pressure, alternating one hundred thousand times per second, excites the normally inert nitrogen, causing it to combine with the oxygen. The flame-like discharge shown in the photograph measures sixty-five feet across.

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[Fig. 5.] — Illustrating An Effect of An Electrical Oscillator Delivering Energy at a Rate of Seventy-Five Thousand Horse-Power: The discharge, creating a strong draft owing to the heating of the air, is carried upward through the open roof of the building. The greatest width across is nearly seventy feet. The pressure is over twelve million volts, and the current alternates one hundred and thirty thousand times per second.

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[Fig. 6.] — Experiment Illustrating the Capacity on the Oscillator for Creating a Great Electrical Movement: The ball shown in the photograph, covered with a polished metallic coating of twenty square feet of surface, represents a large reservoir of electricity, and the inverted tin pan underneath, with a sharp rim, a big opening through which the electricity can escape before filling the reservoir. The quantity of electricity set in movement is so great that, although most of it escapes through the rim of the pan or opening provided, the ball or reservoir is nevertheless alternately emptied and filled to over-flowing (as is evident from the discharge escaping on the top of the ball) one hundred and fifty thousand times per second.

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[Fig. 7.] — A double-exposure photograph of Tesla sitting in front of his electrical oscillator. Of course he’s not really sitting there with the machine on. He would die.

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[Fig. 8.] — Experiment Illustrating an Inductive Effect of an Electrical Oscillator of Great Power: The photograph shows three ordinary incandescent lamps lighted to full candle-power by currents induced in a local loop consisting of a single wire forming a square of fifty feet each side, which includes the lamps, and which is at a distance of one hundred feet from the primary circuit energized by the oscillator. The loop likewise includes an electrical condenser, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of the oscillator, which is worked at less than five percent of its total capacity.

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[Fig. 9.] — Experiment Illustrating the Transmission of Electrical Energy Through the Earth Without Wire: The coil shown in the photograph has its lower end or terminal connected to the ground, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of a distant electrical oscillator. The lamp lighted is in an independent wire loop, energized by induction from the coil excited by the electrical vibrations transmitted to it through the ground from the oscillator, which is worked only to five per cent. of its full capacity.

Photos and captions courtesy of Tesla Collection

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Nikola Tesla father of radio and of modern pow…

Nikola Tesla father of radio and of modern power transmission and generation, celebrated his seventy-fifth birthday yesterday.

In honor of the occasion Dr. Tesla revealed in an interview that he had developed after many years of concentrated effort a means that will make it possible for man to transmit energy in large amounts, thousands of horse power, from one planet to another, which, he believes, some day will open the way for interplanetary communication.

During the day a volume was presented to him containing letters of congratulation from about 100 inventors and scientists. These included Sir Oliver Lodge, E. F. W. Alexanderson, Lee De Forest, John Hays Hammond Jr., Dr. Robert A. Millikan, Secretary of Commerce Lamont, H. H. Westinghouse, B. A. Behrend and Count von Arco.

Nearing Period of New Wonders.

“I feel,” he said, “that we are nearing a period when the human mind will perform greater wonders than ever before. This is due to the continuous refinement of means and methods of observation and the ever-increasing delicacy of our perception.

“Will man conquer nature some day?” he was asked.

“As I examine the possibilities of achievement,” he replied, “and the benefits which the human race may derive from them I think that nothing can be more important than interplanetary communication. It will certainly come some day, and the certitude that there are other human beings in the universe, working, suffering, struggling, like ourselves, will produce a magic effect on mankind and will form the foundation of a universal brotherhood that will last as long as humanity itself.”

“Then you believe that life exists on other planets?”

“It is a mathematical certitude!”

“I wouldn’t have told you that under ordinary conditions,” he added with a smile, “but the seventy-fifth birthday is a rare occasion.”

Doubts Physical Strength.

“How soon will you make your discovery public?”

There was a trace of regret in his voice as he answered, and the look of a man who has work enough for centuries and only a few years to do it in.

“I have been leading a secluded life,” he said, “one of continuous, concentrated thought and deep meditation. Naturally enough, I have accumulated a great number of ideas. The question is whether my physical powers will be adequate to working them out and giving them to the world. It is as Goethe said:

Der Gott der mir im Busen wohnt
Kann tief mein Innerstes bewegen;
Der ueber allen meinen Kraeften tront,
Er kann nach aussen nichts bewegen.

The God who lives in my bosom can deeply move me inside;
The Tront about all my strength,
He can not move outwards

He had not read Goethe for forty years, be said, and he quoted it from memory. The conversation turned to the subject of the human brain.

“We are all automatons,” he reflected, “obeying external influences. We are entirely under the control of agents that beat on our senses from all directions of the outside world. Being merely receivers from the outside, it is a very important question how good the receivers are – some are sensitive and receive accurately. Others are sluggish and their reception is blurred. The individual who is a better machine has so much greater chance of achieving success and happiness. An individual who is an offender of law is a machine in which one or another organ has been deranged, so that the responses are no longer accurate.

“There is no chance in nature, although the modern theory of indeterminacy attempts to show scientifically that events are governed by chance. I positively deny that. The causes and effects, however complex, are intimately linked, and the result of all inferences must be inevitably fixed as by a mathematical formula.

“I also absolutely deny the existence of individuality. It took me not less than twenty years to develop a faculty to trace every thought or act of mine to an external influence. We are just waves in time and space, changing continuously, and the illusion of individuality is produced through the concatenation of the rapidly succeeding phases of existence. What we define as likeness is merely the result of the symmetrical arrangement of molecules which compose our body.”

Says There Is No Soul.

“How about the soul – the spirit?” he was asked.

“Ah,” he exclaimed, “but there is no soul or spirit. These are merely expressions of the functions of the body. These life functions cease with death and so do soul and spirit.

“What humanity needs is ideals. Idealism is the force that will free us from material fetters.”

The inventor spent the day as usual. He went to bed at 5:30 A.M. and rose again at 10:30, after five hours’ rest. However, he did not spend the entire five hours in sleep.

“I rolled around in bed,” he confessed, “and worked on my problems.”

New York Times, July 11th, 1931.