Category: engineering

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drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla’s Two Designs for Geothermal Energy

By. J. J. J.

Nikola Tesla recognized early in his life that humankind was quickly consuming the earth’s supply of forests, coal, gas and oil which we use for heat, light and motive power in our everyday lives. He realized that these methods were barbarous and wasteful, because eventually all the forests would disappear, and the coal, gas and oil fields would be exhausted. This was not just his own opinion, but a fact based off the geological investigations of his time which showed our fuel stores to be limited. He believed it was in the best interest of future generations that humans should find better means of providing energy to the global population.

On his 75th birthday, Tesla gathered members of the press together and proposed two new designs for geothermal electric power; one involved utilizing the different temperatures of the upper and lower levels of the oceans, and the second was based on the concept of using the heat from below the earth’s surface. The two ideas were not new theories by any means, but mere proposals made by Tesla to improve upon previous research that to date had not been economically viable to implement. With Tesla’s new designs, he assured that steam could be a financially feasible option to provide the world with clean and inexpensive electrical and mechanical energy sources.

It is well known that at certain depths of the oceans the water gets colder, and the reverse effect happens on land where the temperatures get warmer. Tesla’s plan was to utilize these effects by using vacuums and vacuum pumps to generate steam power. The significance of the vacuum is simple. When water boils it evaporates and creates steam. Science tells us that at sea level water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. It also tells us that water boils faster at lower atmospheric pressures. For example, the higher in elevation water gets from sea level the boiling point becomes lower than 212 °F. Therefore, in a vacuum where there is little to no atmospheric pressure, water can be made to boil at the lowest temperatures. This similar behavior is shown in a device called a cryophorus, invented by William Wollaston. A cryophorus contains two vacuum bulbs interconnected by a tube and both partially filled with liquid water. The liquid in one bulb evaporates and is condensed in the other. If the dry bulb is rapidly cooled, say put in ice, the water condensed in the other bulb freezes and gives off steam.

The —cryophorus— is well-known as a scientific toy, exemplifying also the principle of refrigerating machinery.

Tesla’s oceanic and terrestrial plan was similar to this scheme except on a much larger scale. His adaption was to make use of the steam by inserting a turbine in between the two bulbs and connecting it to a generator turning the steam into useful energy. The steam from the turbine could also be cycled back and reused.

In the oceanic design, Tesla planned to dig a pipe down to the great depths of the ocean to collect cold water, and have another pipe close to surface level. His vacuum pump would draw water from both levels of the ocean—one towards his condenser and the other to his boiler. The boiler would boil water at surface temperature (58 degrees Fahrenheit), and the steam generated would be directed up an insulated pipe towards the turbine—spinning it into rotation. The steam exhausted by the turbine is then passed to the condenser where it meets with the cold water, and just like with the cryophorus, the water is condensed and the cycle repeats.

The oceanic scheme draws power from the depths of the ocean, utilizing the warmth of one layer, brought into contact with the cold of another, to operate great power plants. 

The terrestrial system acts in opposite manner. A deep tunnel would be dug in the earth and an insulated pipe, connected to the turbine at surface level, would be inserted. The steam from the depths would be lifted up towards the turbine. From the turbine the steam is discharged into a condenser. The condensed water flows by gravity through another insulated pipe reaching to a depth at which the temperature of the ground exceeds that of the condensate. The picture below explains the process.

The arrangement of the terrestrial power plant. Water is circulated to the bottom of the shaft, returning as steam to drive the turbine, and then returned to liquid form in the condenser, in an unending cycle.

Although these designs of Tesla never came into fruition, his ideas still remain. If you wish to understand Tesla’s concepts better you can read his article here:

“OUR FUTURE MOTIVE POWER.” Everyday Science and Mechanics, December 1931.

Ahead of his time!

drnikolatesla:

“If there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: ‘There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium…’ If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium.”

“When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

“Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule.  Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weight of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass.  However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

“Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

“It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved…“

–Nikola Tesla

“The Eternal Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.” October 13, 1932.

drnikolatesla:

“Nikola Tesla For The First Time Describes His New System For Supplying Wireless Power To Run All The Earth’s Industries.”

By a series of discoveries and inventions just perfected, Nikola Tesla, the electrical scientist, has upset what has hitherto been regarded as one of the fixed laws of nature. “Every effect diminishes with distance,” is the way the textbooks have expressed it. Tesla now says that instead of decreasing like other forces, electricity may be made to increase in intensity with the distance traveled.

The full significance of this discovery may not be at once apparent. It is obvious, however, that it annihilates space. There can be no limit to the power of the electric wave which increases in intensity the further it travels.

For nearly 20 years Tesla has been working on his plan, he calls it his wireless “World System.” If it is put into successful execution it will convert the earth into a gigantic conduit, which will pass power for all earthly activities, and make possible communication with other planets.

From time to time Tesla has made partial announcements as his work progressed. This, however, is the first comprehensive account of his system as a whole that the inventor has consented to give to the world.

“Through ages past man has always attempted to project in some way or other energy into space. In all his attempts, no matter what agent he employed, he was hampered by the inexorable law of nature which says every effect diminishes with distance, generally as the square of the same, sometimes more rapidly.

“I saw at once that space was annihilated in all the three aspects; in the transport of our bodies and materials and in the earth, transmission of the energies necessary for our existence. You can imagine how profoundly I was affected by this revelation. Technically, it meant that the earth, as a whole, had certain periods of vibrations, and that by by impressing electrical vibrations of the same periods upon it, it could be thrown into oscillations of such nature that innumerable benefits could be derived.

“It is difficult to convey an idea of these inventions without resorting to technical terms. The first and best known of these is my transformer, which enables the production of electrical vibrations of transcending intensities. I have already attained activities of many millions of horse power; but this is nothing compared to those which I am expecting to get with my improved apparatus.

“The second is what I have termed my magnifying transmitter, which I look upon as my best electrical invention, and with which any distance can be bridged. I have already passed of this wonderful instrument and am confident that a message can be flashed to such a distance as the planet Mars.

“Some technical men would be disposed to look upon such statements as those of a dreamer, but it is only because they have not had opportunities to see experiments which I have actually performed. The third invention I have designated as the “Art of individualization,” which enables the transmission of an unlimited number of messages through a wire or wireless, without the slightest interference. Not before this improvement is universally adopted will the world fully realise the benefits of telegraphy and telephony. The fourth invention is my receiver, which concentrates the energy transmitted over a wide area into the operating device.”

What would the voltage in your transmitter be?

“In the transmission of telegraphic and telephonic messages I shall employ from five to ten million volts, but in transmitting power in great quantities, as much as one hundred million volts will be used.“

How will your “World System” compare with those now in use as regards to cost?

“We could easily afford to offer a transmission of telegraphic and telephonic messages to any terrestrial distance for five cents a word. In a short while no one will think it anything out of the way to dictate or to write a long letter across the Pacific.”

How long does it take for the transmission of a message, by your system, around the world?

“The exact time is, according to my measurements, 43-1000 of a second, which is a speed about 50 per cent greater than that of light.

“The impulse starts from my magnifying transmitter with infinite speed, slows first rapidly and then at a lesser rate until, when it has penetrated to a distance of 6000 miles from the transmitter, it proceeds with approximately the speed of light. From there on it accelerates, first slowly and then more rapidly, and reaches the opposite point of the globe again with infinite speed only to rebound and pass through the same phases on its way back to the transmitter.

“This movement of electricity through the Earth, which takes place strictly in accordance with a mathematical law, and enables a great number of accurate measurements and determinations to be made, which are of immense practical and scientific value.”

Is your universal marine service based upon this principle?

“Largely so. In setting up and maintaining stationary waves in the earth its entire surface is subdivided in perfectly definite zones of electric activity, so that any observer of all those data which are of importance to navigators as the latitude and longitude, the position with reference to a given point, the speed of travel, and the course followed. This method is quite exact and reliable, and once introduced will be instrumental in a great saving of time, life and property.”

When your system of time distribution is introduced what kind of devices will be used for indicating the hour?

“They will be ever so much simpler than the ordinary clocks or watches, being entirely devoid of wheel work. For personal use a small case will be provided resembling that of a watch which would indicate precisely the time and require no more attention than a compass for instance. The large clocks on towers and public edifices in general will be replaced by extremely simple devices operated on the same principle.

“All these will be ‘tuned’ to a wireless wave sent out at a certain time. This will automatically set the hands of every ‘tuned’ time piece.”

In operating stock tickers, will the present instruments have to be replaced by others?

“Not at all, they will remain intact. A great financier told me that this should be one of the most valuable and practical applications of my system, inasmuch as the instantaneous operation of such instruments all the world over will go far toward allaying panics and failures which are at present mostly due to the inadequacy and stagnation of channels of information.”

“A business man will be able to dictate in his office a letter which will appear in type at any other place he wishes without loss of time in the transmission. It will be exactly as though he had his stenographer close by. In the same manner it will be practicable to send a handwritten letter or even a check, and what is more important, it will not be possible to falsify the signature.”

Will the transmission of complex musical productions require complicated apparatuses?

“Not at all. The apparatus at any of the master plants, transmitting a great number of musical compositions, will be of necessity complicated, but the subscriber will need only a telephone receiver, and, if he desires exclusiveness, and individualizing device in connection, which, however, will be rarely required. He will be none the less able to listen to the most complex opera played in some remote party of the world. What is more, he can carry the entire outfit with him on his walks and travels, and whenever he desires to listen to the music he can do so.

“The wireless system which I have developed does not contemplate competition with established lighting systems in densely populated districts, but it offers an ideal solution for the illumination of isolated places. The light will be furnished by exhausted glass tubes, bent in all sorts of ornamental shapes, and is of surpassing beauty, resembling closely the daylight. The lamps will last forever. The entire apparatus for lighting the average country dwelling will contain no moving part whatever, and could be readily carried about in a small valise. It will be quite immaterial in which region of the earth the house to be lighted is located. Distance will not affect the charge.“

How far from the Earth’s surface can power be transmitted by this wireless system?

“To any distance; in fact, the greater the elevation above the ground the easier it is to supply the power to the vehicle, such as an airship crossing the ocean.”

What do you consider the most important application of your system?

"The transmission of power, of course. The operation of aerial machines alone will be of a revolutionizing influence, in as much as it will afford a perfect solution of this important problem.

"Another great field will be the irrigation and fertilization of the soil by wireless power. The time is not distance when a farmer will have installed on his place an apparatus for continuously manufacturing, from the gases of the atmosphere, nitric compounds which will be used to fertilize, while a motor will pump the water and perform other duties; all the energy being supplied from a plant perhaps thousands of miles away. This system can be extended so as to make productive vast tracts of now barren lands located in various countries. I believe that the export of wireless power will be one of the chief resources of the United States and other fortunately situated countries in times to come.“

By Marcel Roland. New York American, September 3, 1911.

 “The Future of the Wireless Art.”

“A mass in movement resists change of direction. So does the world oppose a new idea. It takes time to make up the minds to its value and importance. Ignorance, prejudice and inertia of the old retard its early progress. It is discredited by insincere exponents and selfish exploiters. It is attacked and condemned by its enemies. Eventually, though, all barriers are thrown down, and it spreads like fire. This will also prove true of the wireless art.

"The practical applications of this revolutionary principle have only begun. So far they have been confined to the use of oscillations which are quickly damped out in their passage through the medium. Still, even this has commanded universal attention. What will be achieved by waves which do not diminish with distance, baffles comprehension.

"It is difficult for a layman to grasp how an electric current can be propagated to distances of thousands of miles without diminution of intention. But it is simple after all. Distance is only a relative conception, a reflection in the mind of physical limitation. A view of electrical phenomena must be free of this delusive impression. However surprising, it is a fact that a sphere of the size of a little marble offers a greater impediment to the passage of a current than the whole earth. Every experiment, then, which can be performed with such a small sphere can likewise be carried out, and much more perfectly, with the immense globe on which we live. This is not merely a theory, but a truth established in numerous and carefully conducted experiments. When the earth is struck mechanically, as is the case in some powerful terrestrial upheaval, it vibrates like a bell, its period being measured in hours. When it is struck electrically, the charge oscillates, approximately, twelve times a second. By impressing upon it current waves of certain lengths, definitely related to its diameter, the globe is thrown into resonant vibration like a wire, stationary waves forming, the nodal and ventral regions of which can be located with mathematical precision. Owing to this fact and the spheroidal shape of the earth, numerous geodetical and other data, very accurate and of the greatest scientific and practical value, can be readily secured. Through the observation of these astonishing phenomena we shall soon be able to determine the exact diameter of the planet, its configuration and volume, the extent of its elevations and depressions, and to measure, with great precision and with nothing more than an electrical device, all terrestrial distances. In the densest fog or darkness of night, without a compass or other instruments of orientation, or a timepiece, it will be possible to guide a vessel along the shortest or orthodromic path, to instantly read the latitude and longitude, the hour, the distance from any point, and the true speed and direction of movement. By proper use of such disturbances a wave may be made to travel over the earth’s surface with any velocity desired, and an electrical effect produced at any spot which can be selected at will and the geographical position of which can be closely ascertained from simple rules of trigonometry.

"This mode of conveying electrical energy to a distance is not ‘wireless’ in the popular sense, but a transmission through a conductor, and one which is incomparably more perfect than any artificial one. All impediments of conduction arise from confinement of the electric and magnetic fluxes to narrow channels. The globe is free of such cramping and hinderment. It is an ideal conductor because of its immensity, isolation in space, and geometrical form. Its singleness is only an apparent limitation, for by impressing upon it numerous non-interfering vibrations, the flow of energy may be directed through any number of paths which, though bodily connected, are yet perfectly distinct and separate like ever so many cables. Any apparatus, then, which can be operated through one or more wires, at distances obviously limited, can likewise be worked without artificial conductors, and with the same facility and precision, at distances without limit other than that imposed by the physical dimensions of the globe.

"It is intended to give practical demonstrations of these principles with the plant illustrated. As soon as completed, it will be possible for a business man in New York to dictate instructions, and have them instantly appear in type at his office in London or elsewhere. He will be able to call up, from his desk, and talk to any telephone subscriber on the globe, without any change whatever in the existing equipment. An inexpensive instrument, not bigger than a watch, will enable its bearer to hear anywhere, on sea or land, music or song, the speech of a political leader, the address of an eminent man of science, or the sermon of an eloquent clergyman, delivered in some other place, however distant. In the same manner any picture, character, drawing, or print can be transferred from one to another place. Millions of such instruments can be operated from but one plant of this kind. More important than all of this, however, will be the transmission of power, without wires, which will be shown on a scale large enough to carry conviction. These few indications will be sufficient to show that the wireless art offers greater possibilities than any invention or discovery heretofore made, and if the conditions are favorable, we can expect with certitude that in the next few years wonders will be wrought by its application.”

–Nikola Tesla

Wireless Telegraphy & Telephony, 1908.

Wardenclyffe Tower⚡⚡⚡

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drnikolatesla:

Nikola Tesla’s Two Designs for Geothermal Energy

By. J. J. J.

Nikola Tesla recognized early in his life that humankind was quickly consuming the earth’s supply of forests, coal, gas and oil which we use for heat, light and motive power in our everyday lives. He realized that these methods were barbarous and wasteful, because eventually all the forests would disappear, and the coal, gas and oil fields would be exhausted. This was not just his own opinion, but a fact based off the geological investigations of his time which showed our fuel stores to be limited. He believed it was in the best interest of future generations that humans should find better means of providing energy to the global population.

On his 75th birthday, Tesla gathered members of the press together and proposed two new designs for geothermal electric power; one involved utilizing the different temperatures of the upper and lower levels of the oceans, and the second was based on the concept of using the heat from below the earth’s surface. The two ideas were not new theories by any means, but mere proposals made by Tesla to improve upon previous research that to date had not been economically viable to implement. With Tesla’s new designs, he assured that steam could be a financially feasible option to provide the world with clean and inexpensive electrical and mechanical energy sources.

It is well known that at certain depths of the oceans the water gets colder, and the reverse effect happens on land where the temperatures get warmer. Tesla’s plan was to utilize these effects by using vacuums and vacuum pumps to generate steam power. The significance of the vacuum is simple. When water boils it evaporates and creates steam. Science tells us that at sea level water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. It also tells us that water boils faster at lower atmospheric pressures. For example, the higher in elevation water gets from sea level the boiling point becomes lower than 212 °F. Therefore, in a vacuum where there is little to no atmospheric pressure, water can be made to boil at the lowest temperatures. This similar behavior is shown in a device called a cryophorus, invented by William Wollaston. A cryophorus contains two vacuum bulbs interconnected by a tube and both partially filled with liquid water. The liquid in one bulb evaporates and is condensed in the other. If the dry bulb is rapidly cooled, say put in ice, the water condensed in the other bulb freezes and gives off steam.

The —cryophorus— is well-known as a scientific toy, exemplifying also the principle of refrigerating machinery.

Tesla’s oceanic and terrestrial plan was similar to this scheme except on a much larger scale. His adaption was to make use of the steam by inserting a turbine in between the two bulbs and connecting it to a generator turning the steam into useful energy. The steam from the turbine could also be cycled back and reused.

In the oceanic design, Tesla planned to dig a pipe down to the great depths of the ocean to collect cold water, and have another pipe close to surface level. His vacuum pump would draw water from both levels of the ocean—one towards his condenser and the other to his boiler. The boiler would boil water at surface temperature (58 degrees Fahrenheit), and the steam generated would be directed up an insulated pipe towards the turbine—spinning it into rotation. The steam exhausted by the turbine is then passed to the condenser where it meets with the cold water, and just like with the cryophorus, the water is condensed and the cycle repeats.

The oceanic scheme draws power from the depths of the ocean, utilizing the warmth of one layer, brought into contact with the cold of another, to operate great power plants. 

The terrestrial system acts in opposite manner. A deep tunnel would be dug in the earth and an insulated pipe, connected to the turbine at surface level, would be inserted. The steam from the depths would be lifted up towards the turbine. From the turbine the steam is discharged into a condenser. The condensed water flows by gravity through another insulated pipe reaching to a depth at which the temperature of the ground exceeds that of the condensate. The picture below explains the process.

The arrangement of the terrestrial power plant. Water is circulated to the bottom of the shaft, returning as steam to drive the turbine, and then returned to liquid form in the condenser, in an unending cycle.

Although these designs of Tesla never came into fruition, his ideas still remain. If you wish to understand Tesla’s concepts better you can read his article here:

“OUR FUTURE MOTIVE POWER.” Everyday Science and Mechanics, December 1931.

Ahead of his time!!!

Nikola Tesla’s Two Designs for Geothermal Energy

By. J. J. J.

Nikola Tesla recognized early in his life that humankind was quickly consuming the earth’s supply of forests, coal, gas and oil which we use for light, heat, and motive power in our everyday lives. He realized that these methods were barbarous and wasteful, because eventually all the forests would disappear, and the coal, gas and oil fields would be exhausted. This was not just his own opinion, but a fact based off the geological investigations of his time which showed our fuel stores to be limited. He believed it was in the best interest of future generations that humans should find better means of providing energy to the global population. On his 75th birthday, Tesla gathered members of the press together and proposed two new designs for geothermal electric power; one involved utilizing the different temperatures of the upper and lower levels of the oceans, and the second was based on the concept of using the heat from below the earth’s surface. The two ideas were not new theories by any means, but mere proposals made by Tesla to improve upon previous research that to date had not been economically viable to implement. With Tesla’s new designs, he assured that steam could be a financially feasible option to provide the world with clean and inexpensive electrical and mechanical energy sources.

It is well known that at certain depths of the oceans the water gets colder, and the reverse effect happens on land where the temperatures get warmer. Tesla’s plan was to utilize these effects by using vacuums and vacuum pumps to generate steam power. The significance of the vacuum is simple. When water boils it evaporates and creates steam. Science tells us that at sea level water boils at 212 degrees Fahrenheit. It also tells us that water boils faster at lower atmospheric pressures. For example, the higher in elevation water gets from sea level the boiling point becomes lower than 212 °F. Therefore, in a vacuum where there is little to no atmospheric pressure, water can be made to boil at the lowest temperatures. This similar behavior is shown in a device called a cryophorus, invented by William Wollaston. A cryophorus contains two vacuum bulbs interconnected by a tube and both partially filled with liquid water. The liquid in one bulb evaporates and is condensed in the other. If the dry bulb is rapidly cooled, say put in ice, the water condensed in the other bulb freezes and gives off steam.

The —cryophorus— is well-known as a scientific toy, exemplifying also the principle of refrigerating machinery.

Tesla’s oceanic and terrestrial plan was similar to this scheme except on a much larger scale. His adaption was to make use of the steam by inserting a turbine in between the two bulbs and connecting it to a generator turning the steam into useful energy.

In the oceanic design, Tesla planned to dig a pipe down to the great depths of the ocean to collect cold water, and have another pipe close to surface level. His vacuum pump would draw water from both levels of the ocean—one towards his condenser and the other to his boiler. The boiler would boil water at surface temperature (58 degrees Fahrenheit), and the steam generated would be directed up an insulated pipe towards the turbine—spinning it into rotation. The steam exhausted by the turbine is then passed to the condenser where it meets with the cold water, and just like with the cryophorus, the water is condensed and the cycle repeats.

The oceanic scheme draws power from the depths of the ocean, utilizing the warmth of one layer, brought into contact with the cold of another, to operate great power plants. 

The terrestrial system acts in opposite manner. A deep tunnel would be dug in the earth and an insulated pipe, connected to the turbine at surface level, would be inserted. The steam from the depths would be lifted up towards the turbine. From the turbine the steam is discharged into a condenser. The condensed water flows by gravity through another insulated pipe reaching to a depth at which the temperature of the ground exceeds that of the condensate. The picture below explains the process.

The arrangement of the terrestrial power plant. Water is circulated to the bottom of the shaft, returning as steam to drive the turbine, and then returned to liquid form in the condenser, in an unending cycle.

Although these designs of Tesla never came into fruition, his ideas still remain. If you wish to understand Tesla’s concepts better you can read his article here:

“OUR FUTURE MOTIVE POWER.” Everyday Science and Mechanics, December 1931.