Category: experiments

“The External Source of Energy of the Universe, Origin and Intensity of Cosmic Rays.”

By Nikola Tesla

October 13, 1932, New York:

“A little over one century ago many astronomers, including Laplace still thought that the system of heavenly bodies was unalterable and that they would perform their motions in the same manner through an eternity. But the gradual perfection of instruments and refinement of methods of investigation, achieved since that time, has led to the recognition that there is a continuous change going on in the celestial regions subjecting all bodies to ever varying influence. Where this change is leading to, and what is to be its final phase, have become questions of supreme scientific interest. In a communication to the Royal Society of Edinburgh dated April 19, 1852 and the Philosophical Magazine of October of the same year, Lord Kelvin drew attention to the general tendency in nature towards dissipation of mechanical energy, a fact borne out in daily observation of thermo-dynamic and dynamo-thermic processes and one of ominous significance. It meant that the driving force of the universe was steadily decreasing and that ultimately all of its motive energy will be exhausted none remaining available for mechanical work. In the macro-cosmos, with its countless conception, this process might require billion of years for its consummation; but in the infinitesimal worlds of the micro-cosmos it must have been quickly completed. Such being the case then, according to an experimental findings and deductions of positive science, any material substance (cooled down to the absolute zero of temperature) should be devoid of an internal movement and energy, so to speak, dead.

“This idea of the great philosopher, who later honored me with his friendship, had a fascinating effect on my mind and in meditating over it I was struck by the thought that if there is energy within the substance it can only come from without. This truth was so manifest to me that I expressed it in the following axiom: "There is no energy in matter except that absorbed from the medium.” Lord Kelvin gave us a picture of a dying universe, of a clockwork wound up and running down, inevitably doomed to come to a full stop in the far, far off future. It was a gloomy view incompatible with artistic, scientific and mechanical sense. I asked myself again and again, was there not some force winding up the clock as it runs down? The axiom I had formulated gave me a clue. If all energy is supplied to matter from without then this all important function must be performed by the medium. Yes–but how?

“I pondered over this oldest and greatest of all riddles of physical science a long time in vain, despairingly remind of the words of the poet:

"Wo fass ich dich unendliche Nat—r?

Euch Bruste wo Ihr Quellen alles Lebens

An denen Himmel und Erd— hangt.”

[“Where, boundless nature, can I hold you fast?

And where you breasts?  Wells that sustain

All life – the heaven and the earth are nursed. ”]

                                      Goethe.  Faust 

“What I strove for seemed unattainable, but a kind fate favored me and a few inspired experiments lifted the veil. It was a revelation wonderful and incredible explaining many mysteries of nature and disclosing as in a lightening flash the illusionary character of some modem theories incidentally also bearing out the universal truth of the above axiom.

"When radio-active rays were discovered their investigators believed them to be due to liberation of atomic energy in the form of waves. This being impossible in the light of the preceding I concluded that they were produced by some external disturbance and composed of electrified particles. My theory was not seriously taken although it appeared simple and plausible. Suppose that bullets are fired against a wall. Where a missile strikes the material is crushed and spatters in all directions radial from the place of impact. In this example it is perfectly clear that the energy of the flying pieces can only be derived from that of the bullets. But in manifestation of radio-activity no such proof could be advanced and it was, therefore, of the first importance to demonstrate experimentally the existence of this miraculous disturbance in the medium. I was rewarded in these efforts with quick success largely because of the efficient method I adopted which consisted in deriving from a great mass of air, ionized by the disturbance, a current, storing its energy in a condenser and discharging the same through an indicating device. This plan did away with the limitations and incertitude of the electroscope first employed and was described by me in articles and patents from 1900 to 1905. It was logical to expect, judging from the behavior of known radiations, that the chief source of the new rays would be the sun, but this supposition was contradicted by observations and theoretical considerations which disclosed some surprising facts in this connection.

"Light and heat rays are absorbed in their passage through a medium in a certain proportion to its density. The ether, although the most tenuous of all substances, is no exception to this rule. Its density has been first estimated by Lord Kelvin and conformably to his finding a column of one square centimeter cross section and of a length such that light, traveling at a rate of three hundred thousands kilometers per second, would require one year to traverse it, should weigh 4.8 grams. This is just about the weigh of a prism of ordinary glass of the same cross section and two centimeters length which, therefore, may be assumed as the equivalent of the ether column in absorption. A column of the ether one thousand times longer would thus absorb as much light as twenty meters of glass. However, there are suns at distances of many thousands of light years and it is evident that virtually no light from them can reach the earth. But if these suns emit rays immensely more penetrative than those of light they will be slightly dimmed and so the aggregate amount of radiations pouring upon the earth from all sides will be overwhelmingly greater than that supplied to it by our luminary. If light and heat rays would be as penetrative as the cosmic, so fierce would be the perpetual glare and so scorching the heat that life on this and other planets could not exist.

"Rays in every respect similar to the cosmic are produced by my vacuum tubes when operated at pressures of ten millions of volts or more, but even if it were not confirmed by experiment, the theory I advanced in 1897 would afford the simplest and most probable explanation of the phenomena. Is not the universe with its infinite and impenetrable boundary a perfect vacuum tube of dimensions and power inconceivable? Are not its fiery suns electrodes at temperatures far beyond any we can apply in the puny and crude contrivances of our making? Is it not a fact that the suns and stars are under immense electrical pressures transcending any that man can ever produce and is this not equally true of the vacuum in celestial space? Finally, can there be any doubt that cosmic dust and meteoric matter present an infinitude of targets acting as reflectors and transformers of energy? If under ideal working conditions, and with apparatus on a scale beyond the grasp of the human mind, rays of surpassing intensity and penetrative power would not be generated, then, indeed, nature has made an unique exception to its laws.

"It has been suggested that the cosmic rays are electrons or that they are the result of creation of new matter in the interstellar deserts. These views are too fantastic to be even for a moment seriously considered. They are natural outcroppings of this age of deep but unrational thinking, of impossible theories, the latest of which might, perhaps, deal with the curvature of time. What this world of ours would be if time were curved:

"As there exists considerable doubt in regard to the manner in which the intensity of the cosmic rays varies with altitude the following simple formula derived from my early experimental data may be welcome to those who are interested in the subject.

I = (W+P) / (W+p)

"In this expression W is the weight in kilograms of a column of lead of one square centimeter cross section and one hundred and eighty centimeters length, P the normal pressure of the atmosphere at sea level in kilograms per square centimeter, p the atmospheric pressure at the altitude under consideration and in like measure and I the intensity of the radiation in terms of that at sea level which is taken as unit. Substituting the actual values for W and P, respectively 1.9809 and 1.0133 kilograms, the formula reduces to

I = 2.99421 / (1.9809 + p)

"Obviously, at sea level p = P hence the intensity is equal to 1, this being the unit of measurement. On the other hand, at the extreme limit of the atmosphere p = 0 and the intensity I = 1.5115. 

"The maximum increase with height is, consequently, a little over fifty-one percent. This formula, based on my finding that the absorption is proportionate to the density of the medium whatever it be, is fairly accurate. Other investigators might find different values for W but they will undoubtedly observe the same character of dependence, namely, that the intensity increases proportionately to the height for a few kilometers and then at a gradually lessening rate.”

drnikolatesla:

The Greatest Experiments In Scientific History

by J.J.J.

From June 1, 1899 to January 7, 1900, Nikola Tesla conducted experiments and research on high voltage and high frequency electricity to prove his theory of world wireless energy transmission. His previous 10 years of lectures, experiments, and research prior to this expedition had prepared him to further explore the most complex electrical forces any human had previously ever faced in history.

He chose Colorado Springs, CO as the location due to the high elevation and low air pressure suitable for electrical experimentation. Also, because this was a far more sparsely populated and open area compared to his lab in New York, he was free to experiment with the more extreme parameters of electricity.

[Fig. 1.] — Nikola Tesla’s building in Colorado Springs which he called his “Experimental Station.”

[Fig. 2.] — Tesla peaking out his laboratory. Notice the “GREAT DANGER–KEEP OUT” sign.

With his new and improved Tesla coils that he had invented previously, which could produce electrical power up to millions of horsepower, he was set to challenge the limits of electricity. It’s clear from Tesla’s notes that his principle initiative was to find ways to manipulate the forces of nature and to utilize them for the advancement of humankind. In his Colorado Springs Notes text, he expressed that he had three main goals:

1. To develop a transmitter of great power.

2. To perfect means for individualizing and isolating the energy transmitted.

3. To ascertain the laws of propagation of currents through the earth and the atmosphere.

In his seven months of work, not only did he accomplish all three goals and prove his theory of wireless energy transmission, but he made some of the most remarkable experiments in scientific history. He obtained voltage and frequencies in the hundreds of millions of horse power–producing sparks over 100 feet in length, and actually sent energy through the earth itself to light multiple lamps which were placed dozens of miles away from his transmitter. He discovered stationary waves deriving from natural lightning discharges which his receiver could detect hundreds of miles away from his station. This discovery proved that power could indeed be transmitted through the earth to far distances. He also discovered that the earth as a whole had certain periods of vibrations, and by using his large oscillator could impress electrical vibrations at the same periods upon it creating more energy within the earth. This process is now referred to as constructive interference (the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves). By doing this repeatedly using massive amounts of energy unheard of before, Tesla was able to transmit energy from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. Over 100,000 mps faster than light. Many electrical experimenters have proven this velocity including Jonathan Zenneck and Arnold Sommerfeld. The mathematical equation to this speed is pi divided by 2 times the speed of light ( π/2( c ) ).

Witnessing this experiment, space, according to Tesla, was completely annihilated. This meant he could potentially throw the globe into oscillations of such magnitude that massive amounts of energy could be created, collected, and transmitted to any point on earth regardless of distance.

Fully confident that he accomplished what he initially set out to do, Tesla journeyed back to New York to patent his improved apparatuses and build a new system on an even larger scale than what he’d created in Colorado. This would lead to his World Wireless System, known as his Wardenclyffe Tower. Unfortunately, Tesla would not realize his dream of providing humankind with cheap, unlimited energy in his lifetime; however, his legacy and dreams live on through his experiments conducted in Colorado Springs:

“I am unwilling to accord to some small-minded and jealous individuals the satisfaction of having thwarted my efforts. These men are to me nothing more than microbes of a nasty disease. My project was retarded by the laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.”

–Nikola Tesla

“My Inventions – V. THE MAGNIFYING TRANSMITTER.” Electrical Experimenter. February, 1919.

[Fig. 3.] — Experiment to Illustrate the Capacity of the Oscillator For Producing Electrical Explosions of Great Power: The coil, partly shown in the photograph, creates an alternative movement of electricity from the earth into a large reservoir and back at a rate of one hundred thousand alternations per second. The adjustments are such that the reservoir is fulled full and bursts at each alternation just at the moment when the electrical pressure reaches the maximum. The discharge escapes with a deafening noise, striking an unconnected coil twenty-two feet away, and creating such a commotion of electricity in the earth that sparks an inch long can be drawn from a water main at a distance of three hundred feet from the laboratory.

[Fig. 4.] — Coils Responding to Electrical Oscillations: The picture shows a number of coils , differently attuned and responding to the vibrations transmitted to them through the earth from an electrical oscillator. The large coil on the right, discharging strongly, is tuned to the fundamental vibration, which is fifty thousand per second; the two larger vertical coils to twice that number; the smaller white wire coil to four times that number, and the remaining small coils to higher tones. The vibrations produced by the oscillator were so intense that they affected perceptibly a small coil tuned to the twenty-sixth higher tone.

[Fig. 5.] — Burning the Nitrogen of the Atmosphere: This result is produced by the discharge of an electrical oscillator giving twelve million volts. The electrical pressure, alternating one hundred thousand times per second, excites the normally inert nitrogen, causing it to combine with the oxygen. The flame-like discharge shown in the photograph measures sixty-five feet across.

[Fig. 6.] — Illustrating An Effect of An Electrical Oscillator Delivering Energy at a Rate of Seventy-Five Thousand Horse-Power: The discharge, creating a strong draft owing to the heating of the air, is carried upward through the open roof of the building. The greatest width across is nearly seventy feet. The pressure is over twelve million volts, and the current alternates one hundred and thirty thousand times per second.

[Fig. 7.] — A double-exposure photograph of Tesla sitting in front of his electrical oscillator. Of course he’s not really sitting there with the machine on. He would die.

[Fig. 8.] — Experiment Illustrating an Inductive Effect of an Electrical Oscillator of Great Power: The photograph shows three ordinary incandescent lamps lighted to full candle-power by currents induced in a local loop consisting of a single wire forming a square of fifty feet each side, which includes the lamps, and which is at a distance of one hundred feet from the primary circuit energized by the oscillator. The loop likewise includes an electrical condenser, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of the oscillator, which is worked at less than five percent of its total capacity.

[Fig. 9.] — Experiment Illustrating the Transmission of Electrical Energy Through the Earth Without Wire: The coil shown in the photograph has its lower end or terminal connected to the ground, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of a distant electrical oscillator. The lamp lighted is in an independent wire loop, energized by induction from the coil excited by the electrical vibrations transmitted to it through the ground from the oscillator, which is worked only to five percent. of its full capacity.

(Photos and captions courtesy of Tesla Collection – http://teslacollection.com/images http://teslacollection.com/tesla_articles/1900/century_magazine/nikola_tesla/the_problem_of_increasing_human_energy)

Ahead of his time!!!!

Nikola Tesla’s Views on the Electron

It is a fact that Nikola Tesla was the first scientist to discovery and prove the electron. As early as 1891, Tesla noticed very small charged particles within his vacuum tubes during experiments, and noted them in many of his scientific articles. Up until the turn of the century, he was experimenting with these particles religiously, and had a better understanding on the subject than most other scientists during his time (including J. J. Thomson, who has been given credit to the discovery of the electron).

Tesla didn’t believe in the existence of the “electron” as pictured by today’s pop science, but through practical reasoning and experimentation, he believed that if it could exist at all, it does so only in perfect vacuum.

Here’s 5 quotes made by Tesla on the electron:

1. “To account for its apparently small mass, science conceives the electron as a hollow sphere, a sort of bubble. Now, a bubble can exist in such a medium as a gas or liquid because its internal pressure is not altered by deformation. But if, as supposed, the internal pressure of an electron is due to the repulsion of electric masses, the slightest conceivable deformation must result in the destruction of the bubble!

“Just to mention another improbability, the force tending to tear an electron apart is, in pounds per square inch, represented by the staggering figure of 256,899 followed by twenty-one zeros — and this is 513,798,000,000,000,000,000 times greater that the tension that tungsten wire can withstand! And yet it does not burst! Not even when it is hurled against an obstacle with a speed hundreds of thousands times greater than that of a bullet!”

–Nikola Tesla

“A Famous Prophet of Science Looks Into the Future.” Popular Science Monthly, November, 1928.

2. “Up to 1896, however, I did not succeed in obtaining a positive experimental proof of the existence of such a medium. But in that year I brought out a new form of vacuum tube capable of being charged to any desired potential, and operated it with effective pressures of about 4,000,000 volts. I produced cathodic and other rays of transcending intensity. The effects, according to my view, were due to minute particles of matter carrying enormous electrical charges, which, for want of a better name, I designated as matter not further decomposable. Subsequently those particles were called electrons.”

Nikola Tesla

“Nikola Tesla Tells of New Radio Theories.” New York Herald Tribune, September 22, 1929.

3. “The idea of the atom being formed of electrons and protons which go whirling round each other like a miniature sun and planets is an invention of the imagination, and has no relation to the real nature of matter.

“Virtually all progress has been achieved by physicists, discoverers and inventors; in short, devotees of the science which Newton and his disciples have been and are propounding.

“Personally, it is only efforts in this direction which have claimed my energies. Similar remarks might be made with respect to other modern developments of thought. Take, for example, the electron theory. Perhaps no other has given rise to so many erroneous ideas and chimerical hopes. Everybody speaks of electrons as something entirely definite and real. Still, the fact is that nobody has isolated it and nobody has measured its charge. Nor does anybody know what it really is.

“In order to explain the observed phenomena, atomic structures have been imagined, none of which can possibly exist.

Nikola Tesla

“Great Scientific Discovery Impends.“ The Sunday Star, Washington D.C., May 17, 1931.

4. “My ideas regarding the electron are at variance with those generally entertained. I hold that it is a relatively large body carrying a surface charge and not an elementary unit. When such an electron leaves an electrode of extremely high potential and in very high vacuum, it carries an electrostatic charge many times greater than the normal. This may astonish some of those who think that the particle has the same charge in the tube and outside of it in the air. A beautiful and instructive experiment has been contrived by me showing that such is not the case, for as soon as the particle gets out into the atmosphere it becomes a blazing star owing to the escape of the excess charge. The great quantity of electricity stored on the particle is responsible for the difficulties encountered in the operation of certain tubes and the rapid deterioration of the same.”

–Nikola Tesla

“Dynamic Theory Of Gravity.“ July 10, 1937 (Prior to interviews with the press on his 81st birthday observance).

5. “Before the electron theory was advanced, I had established that radio-active rays consisted of particles of primary matter not further decomposable, and the first thing to find out was whether the sun is charged to a sufficiently high potential to produce the effects noted. This called for a prolonged investigation which culminated in my discovery that the sun’s potential was 216,000,000,000 volts and that all such large and hot bodies emit cosmic rays.

“While the origin and character of the rays observed near the earth’s surface had thus been sufficiently well ascertained, the so-called cosmic rays observed at great altitudes presented a riddle for more than twenty-six years, chiefly because it was found they increased with the height at a rapid rate. My investigations brought out the astonishing fact that the effects at high altitude are of an entirely different nature, having no relation whatever to cosmic rays. These are particles from celestial bodies at very high temperatures and charged to enormous electrical potentials.

“The effects at great elevations are due to waves of extremely small lengths produced by the sun in a certain region of the atmosphere. THIS IS THE DISCOVERY I WISH TO MAKE KNOWN. The process involved in the generation of the waves is the following: The sun projects charged particles constituting an electric current which passes through a conducting stratum of the atmosphere approximately ten kilometers (six miles) thick enveloping the earth. This is a transmission of electrical energy exactly as I illustrated in my experimental lecture in which one end of a wire is connected to an electric generator of high potential, its other end being free. In this case the generator is represented by the sun and the wire by the conducting air.”

“The passage of solar current involves the transference of electric charges from particle to particle with the speed of light, resulting in the production of extremely short and penetrating waves. As the air stratum mentioned is the source of the waves it follows that the so-called cosmic rays observed at great altitude must increase as this stratum is approached.”

–Nikola Tesla

“In The Realm Of Science: Tesla, Who Predicted Radio, Now Looks Forward To Sending Waves To The Moon.” New York Herald Tribune, Aug. 22, 1937.

poopdoggydogg:

drnikolatesla:

The Greatest Experiments In Scientific History

by J.J.J.

From June 1, 1899 to January 7, 1900, Nikola Tesla conducted experiments and research on high voltage and high frequency electricity to prove his theory of world wireless energy transmission. His previous 10 years of lectures, experiments, and research prior to this expedition had prepared him to further explore the most complex electrical forces any human had previously ever faced in history.

He chose Colorado Springs, CO as the location due to the high elevation and low air pressure suitable for electrical experimentation. Also, because this was a far more sparsely populated and open area compared to his lab in New York, he was free to experiment with the more extreme parameters of electricity.

[Fig. 1.] — Nikola Tesla’s building in Colorado Springs which he called his “Experimental Station.”

[Fig. 2.] — Tesla peaking out his laboratory. Notice the “GREAT DANGER–KEEP OUT” sign.

With his new and improved Tesla coils that he had invented previously, which could produce electrical power up to millions of horsepower, he was set to challenge the limits of electricity. It’s clear from Tesla’s notes that his principle initiative was to find ways to manipulate the forces of nature and to utilize them for the advancement of humankind. In his Colorado Springs Notes text, he expressed that he had three main goals:

1. To develop a transmitter of great power.

2. To perfect means for individualizing and isolating the energy transmitted.

3. To ascertain the laws of propagation of currents through the earth and the atmosphere.

In his seven months of work, not only did he accomplish all three goals and prove his theory of wireless energy transmission, but he made some of the most remarkable experiments in scientific history. He obtained voltage and frequencies in the hundreds of millions of horse power–producing sparks over 100 feet in length, and actually sent energy through the earth itself to light multiple lamps which were placed dozens of miles away from his transmitter. He discovered stationary waves deriving from natural lightning discharges which his receiver could detect hundreds of miles away from his station. This discovery proved that power could indeed be transmitted through the earth to far distances. He also discovered that the earth as a whole had certain periods of vibrations, and by using his large oscillator could impress electrical vibrations at the same periods upon it creating more energy within the earth. This process is now referred to as constructive interference (the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves). By doing this repeatedly using massive amounts of energy unheard of before, Tesla was able to transmit energy from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. Over 100,000 mps faster than light. Many electrical experimenters have proven this velocity including Jonathan Zenneck and Arnold Sommerfeld. The mathematical equation to this speed is pi divided by 2 times the speed of light ( π/2( c ) ).

Witnessing this experiment, space, according to Tesla, was completely annihilated. This meant he could potentially throw the globe into oscillations of such magnitude that massive amounts of energy could be created, collected, and transmitted to any point on earth regardless of distance.

Fully confident that he accomplished what he initially set out to do, Tesla journeyed back to New York to patent his improved apparatuses and build a new system on an even larger scale than what he’d created in Colorado. This would lead to his World Wireless System, known as his Wardenclyffe Tower. Unfortunately, Tesla would not realize his dream of providing humankind with cheap, unlimited energy in his lifetime; however, his legacy and dreams live on through his experiments conducted in Colorado Springs:

“I am unwilling to accord to some small-minded and jealous individuals the satisfaction of having thwarted my efforts. These men are to me nothing more than microbes of a nasty disease. My project was retarded by the laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.”

–Nikola Tesla

“My Inventions – V. THE MAGNIFYING TRANSMITTER.” Electrical Experimenter. February, 1919.

[Fig. 3.] — Experiment to Illustrate the Capacity of the Oscillator For Producing Electrical Explosions of Great Power: The coil, partly shown in the photograph, creates an alternative movement of electricity from the earth into a large reservoir and back at a rate of one hundred thousand alternations per second. The adjustments are such that the reservoir is fulled full and bursts at each alternation just at the moment when the electrical pressure reaches the maximum. The discharge escapes with a deafening noise, striking an unconnected coil twenty-two feet away, and creating such a commotion of electricity in the earth that sparks an inch long can be drawn from a water main at a distance of three hundred feet from the laboratory.

[Fig. 4.] — Coils Responding to Electrical Oscillations: The picture shows a number of coils , differently attuned and responding to the vibrations transmitted to them through the earth from an electrical oscillator. The large coil on the right, discharging strongly, is tuned to the fundamental vibration, which is fifty thousand per second; the two larger vertical coils to twice that number; the smaller white wire coil to four times that number, and the remaining small coils to higher tones. The vibrations produced by the oscillator were so intense that they affected perceptibly a small coil tuned to the twenty-sixth higher tone.

[Fig. 5.] — Burning the Nitrogen of the Atmosphere: This result is produced by the discharge of an electrical oscillator giving twelve million volts. The electrical pressure, alternating one hundred thousand times per second, excites the normally inert nitrogen, causing it to combine with the oxygen. The flame-like discharge shown in the photograph measures sixty-five feet across.

[Fig. 6.] — Illustrating An Effect of An Electrical Oscillator Delivering Energy at a Rate of Seventy-Five Thousand Horse-Power: The discharge, creating a strong draft owing to the heating of the air, is carried upward through the open roof of the building. The greatest width across is nearly seventy feet. The pressure is over twelve million volts, and the current alternates one hundred and thirty thousand times per second.

[Fig. 7.] — A double-exposure photograph of Tesla sitting in front of his electrical oscillator. Of course he’s not really sitting there with the machine on. He would die.

[Fig. 8.] — Experiment Illustrating an Inductive Effect of an Electrical Oscillator of Great Power: The photograph shows three ordinary incandescent lamps lighted to full candle-power by currents induced in a local loop consisting of a single wire forming a square of fifty feet each side, which includes the lamps, and which is at a distance of one hundred feet from the primary circuit energized by the oscillator. The loop likewise includes an electrical condenser, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of the oscillator, which is worked at less than five percent of its total capacity.

[Fig. 9.] — Experiment Illustrating the Transmission of Electrical Energy Through the Earth Without Wire: The coil shown in the photograph has its lower end or terminal connected to the ground, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of a distant electrical oscillator. The lamp lighted is in an independent wire loop, energized by induction from the coil excited by the electrical vibrations transmitted to it through the ground from the oscillator, which is worked only to five percent. of its full capacity.

(Photos and captions courtesy of Tesla Collection – http://teslacollection.com/images http://teslacollection.com/tesla_articles/1900/century_magazine/nikola_tesla/the_problem_of_increasing_human_energy)

Faster than light energy transmission. It’s possible! 🤯🤯🤯

Yup!

The Greatest Experiments In Scientific History

by J.J.J.

From June 1, 1899 to January 7, 1900, Nikola Tesla conducted experiments and research on high voltage and high frequency electricity to prove his theory of world wireless energy transmission. His previous 10 years of lectures, experiments, and research prior to this expedition had prepared him to further explore the most complex electrical forces any human had previously ever faced in history.

He chose Colorado Springs, CO as the location due to the high elevation and low air pressure suitable for electrical experimentation. Also, because this was a far more sparsely populated and open area compared to his lab in New York, he was free to experiment with the more extreme parameters of electricity.

[Fig. 1.] — Nikola Tesla’s building in Colorado Springs which he called his “Experimental Station.”

[Fig. 2.] — Tesla peaking out his laboratory. Notice the “GREAT DANGER–KEEP OUT” sign.

With his new and improved Tesla coils that he had invented previously, which could produce electrical power up to millions of horsepower, he was set to challenge the limits of electricity. It’s clear from Tesla’s notes that his principle initiative was to find ways to manipulate the forces of nature and to utilize them for the advancement of humankind. In his Colorado Springs Notes text, he expressed that he had three main goals:

1. To develop a transmitter of great power.

2. To perfect means for individualizing and isolating the energy transmitted.

3. To ascertain the laws of propagation of currents through the earth and the atmosphere.

In his seven months of work, not only did he accomplish all three goals and prove his theory of wireless energy transmission, but he made some of the most remarkable experiments in scientific history. He obtained voltage and frequencies in the hundreds of millions of horse power–producing sparks over 100 feet in length, and actually sent energy through the earth itself to light multiple lamps which were placed dozens of miles away from his transmitter. He discovered stationary waves deriving from natural lightning discharges which his receiver could detect hundreds of miles away from his station. This discovery proved that power could indeed be transmitted through the earth to far distances. He also discovered that the earth as a whole had certain periods of vibrations, and by using his large oscillator could impress electrical vibrations at the same periods upon it creating more energy within the earth. This process is now referred to as constructive interference (the interference of two or more waves of equal frequency and phase, resulting in their mutual reinforcement and producing a single amplitude equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the individual waves). By doing this repeatedly using massive amounts of energy unheard of before, Tesla was able to transmit energy from his transmitter around earth and back to his receiver traveling at a mean velocity of 292,815 miles per second. Many electrical experimenters have since proven this velocity including Jonathan Zenneck and Arnold Sommerfeld. The mathematical equation to this speed is pi divided by 2 times the speed of light ( π/2© ).

Witnessing this experiment, space, according to Tesla, was completely annihilated. This meant he could potentially throw the globe into oscillations of such magnitude that massive amounts of energy could be created, collected, and transmitted to any point on earth regardless of distance.

Fully confident that he accomplished what he initially set out to do, Tesla journeyed back to New York to patent his improved apparatuses and build a new system on an even larger scale than what he’d created in Colorado. This would lead to his World Wireless System, known as his Wardenclyffe Tower. Unfortunately, Tesla would not realize his dream of providing humankind with cheap, unlimited energy in his lifetime; however, his legacy and dreams live on through his experiments conducted in Colorado Springs:

“I am unwilling to accord to some small-minded and jealous individuals the satisfaction of having thwarted my efforts. These men are to me nothing more than microbes of a nasty disease. My project was retarded by the laws of nature. The world was not prepared for it. It was too far ahead of time. But the same laws will prevail in the end and make it a triumphal success.”

–Nikola Tesla

[Fig. 3.] — Experiment to Illustrate the Capacity of the Oscillator For Producing Electrical Explosions of Great Power: The coil, partly shown in the photograph, creates an alternative movement of electricity from the earth into a large reservoir and back at a rate of one hundred thousand alternations per second. The adjustments are such that the reservoir is fulled full and bursts at each alternation just at the moment when the electrical pressure reaches the maximum. The discharge escapes with a deafening noise, striking an unconnected coil twenty-two feet away, and creating such a commotion of electricity in the earth that sparks an inch long can be drawn from a water main at a distance of three hundred feet from the laboratory.

[Fig. 4.] — Coils Responding to Electrical Oscillations: The picture shows a number of coils , differently attuned and responding to the vibrations transmitted to them through the earth from an electrical oscillator. The large coil on the right, discharging strongly, is tuned to the fundamental vibration, which is fifty thousand per second; the two larger vertical coils to twice that number; the smaller white wire coil to four times that number, and the remaining small coils to higher tones. The vibrations produced by the oscillator were so intense that they affected perceptibly a small coil tuned to the twenty-sixth higher tone.

“My Inventions – V. THE MAGNIFYING TRANSMITTER.” Electrical Experimenter. February, 1919.

[Fig. 5.] — Burning the Nitrogen of the Atmosphere: This result is produced by the discharge of an electrical oscillator giving twelve million volts. The electrical pressure, alternating one hundred thousand times per second, excites the normally inert nitrogen, causing it to combine with the oxygen. The flame-like discharge shown in the photograph measures sixty-five feet across.

[Fig. 6.] — Illustrating An Effect of An Electrical Oscillator Delivering Energy at a Rate of Seventy-Five Thousand Horse-Power: The discharge, creating a strong draft owing to the heating of the air, is carried upward through the open roof of the building. The greatest width across is nearly seventy feet. The pressure is over twelve million volts, and the current alternates one hundred and thirty thousand times per second.

[Fig. 7.] — A double-exposure photograph of Tesla sitting in front of his electrical oscillator. Of course he’s not really sitting there with the machine on. He would die.

[Fig. 8.] — Experiment Illustrating an Inductive Effect of an Electrical Oscillator of Great Power: The photograph shows three ordinary incandescent lamps lighted to full candle-power by currents induced in a local loop consisting of a single wire forming a square of fifty feet each side, which includes the lamps, and which is at a distance of one hundred feet from the primary circuit energized by the oscillator. The loop likewise includes an electrical condenser, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of the oscillator, which is worked at less than five percent of its total capacity.

[Fig. 9.] — Experiment Illustrating the Transmission of Electrical Energy Through the Earth Without Wire: The coil shown in the photograph has its lower end or terminal connected to the ground, and is exactly attuned to the vibrations of a distant electrical oscillator. The lamp lighted is in an independent wire loop, energized by induction from the coil excited by the electrical vibrations transmitted to it through the ground from the oscillator, which is worked only to five per cent. of its full capacity.

(Photos and captions courtesy of Tesla Collection – http://teslacollection.com/images http://teslacollection.com/tesla_articles/1900/century_magazine/nikola_tesla/the_problem_of_increasing_human_energy)

“I have never, above my signature, announced anything that I did not prove first. That is the reason why no statement of mine was ever contradicted, and I do not think it will be, because whenever I publish something I go through it first by experiment, that from experiment I calculate, and when I have the theory and practice meet I announce the results.”

–Nikola Tesla

(A pre-hearing interview with his legal counsel in 1916 to protect his radio patents from the Guglielmo Marconi and the Marconi Company.)

“Nikola Tesla On His Works With Alternating Currents and Their Application to Wireless Telegraphy, and Transmission of Power.” Twenty First Century Books, Breckenridge, Colorado, 2002.

Nikola Tesla On X-Rays, Electrons and Cosmic Rays

History tells us that J. J. Thomson discovered the electron and Victory Hess the cosmic ray, but below is proof Nikola Tesla was the first to explain the electron (a year before Thomson), and theorize Cosmic Rays (16 years before Hess).

(Both won Nobel Prizes.)

“Further investigations concerning the behavior of the various metals in regard to reflection of these radiations have given additional support to the opinion which I have before expressed; namely, that Volta’s electric contact series in air is identical with that which is obtained when arranging the metals according to their powers of reflection, the most electro-positive metal being the best reflector. Confining myself to the metals easily experimented upon, this series is magnesium, lead, tin, iron, copper, silver, gold and platinum. The lastnamed metal should be found to be the poorest, and sodium one of the best, reflectors. This relation is rendered still more interesting and suggestive when we consider that this series is approximately the same which is obtained when arranging the metals according to their energies of combination with oxygen, as calculated from their chemical equivalents.

"Should the above relation be confirmed by other physicists, we shall be justified to draw the following conclusions: First, the highly exhausted bulb emits material streams which, impinging on a metallic surface, are reflected; second, these streams are formed of matter in some primary or elementary condition; third, these material streams are probably the same agent which is the cause of the electro-motive tension between metals in close proximity or actual contact, and they may possibly, to some extent, determine the energy of combination of the metals with oxygen; fourth, every metal or conductor is more or less a source of such streams; fifth, these streams or radiations must be produced by some radiations which exist in the medium; and sixth, streams resembling the cathodic must be emitted by the sun and probably also by other sources of radiant energy, such as an arc light or Bunsen burner.

"The first of these conclusions, assuming the above-cited fact to be correct, is evident and uncontrovertible. No theory of vibration of any kind would account for this singular relation between the powers of reflection and electric properties of the metals. Streams of projected matter coming in actual contact with the reflecting metal surface afford the only plausible explanation.

"The second conclusion is likewise obvious, since no difference whatever is observed by employing various qualities of glass for the bulb, electrodes of different metals and any kind of residual gases. Evidently, whatever the matter constituting the streams may be, it must undergo a change in the process of expulsion, or, generally speaking, projection — since the views in this regard still differ — in such a way as to lose entirely the characteristics which it possessed when forming the electrode, or wall of the bulb, or the gaseous contents of the latter.

"The existence of the above relation between the reflecting and contact series forces us likewise to the third conclusion, because a mere coincidence of that kind is, to say the least, extremely improbable. Besides, the fact may be cited that there is always a difference of potential set up between two metal plates at some distance and in the path of the rays issuing from an exhausted bulb.

"Now, since there exists an electric pressure of difference of potential between two metals in close proximity or contact, we must, when considering all the foregoing, come to the fourth conclusion, namely, that the metals emit similar streams, and I therefore anticipate that, if a sensitive film be placed between two plates, say, of magnesium and copper, a true Roentgen shadow picture would be obtained after a very long exposure in the dark. Or, in general, such picture could be secured whenever the plate is placed near a metallic or conducting body, leaving for the present the insulators out of consideration. Sodium, one of the first of the electric contact series, but not yet experimented upon, should give out more of such streams than even magnesium.

"Obviously, such streams could not be forever emitted, unless there is a continuous supply of radiation from the medium in some other form; or possibly the streams which the bodies themselves emit are merely reflected streams coming from other sources. But since all investigation has strengthened the opinion advanced by Roentgen that for the production of these radiations some impact is required, the former of the two possibilities is the more probable one, and we must assume that the radiations existing in the medium and giving rise to those here considered partake something of the nature of cathodic streams.

"But if such streams exist all around us in the ambient medium, the question arises, whence do they come? The only answer is: From the sun. I infer, therefore, that the sun and other sources of radiant energy must, in a less degree, emit radiations or streams of matter similar to those thrown off by an electrode in a highly exhausted inclosure. This seems to be, at this moment, still a point of controversy. According to my present convictions a Roentgen shadow picture should, with very long exposures, be obtained from all sources of radiant energy, provided the radiations are permitted first to impinge upon a metal or other body.”

“The preceding considerations tend to show that the lumps of matter composing a cathodic stream in the bulb are broken up into incomparably smaller particles by impact against the wall of the latter, and, owing to this, are enabled to pass into the air. All evidence which I have so far obtained points rather to this than to the throwing off of particles of the wall itself under the violent impact of the cathodic stream. According to my convictions, then, the difference between Lenard and Roentgen rays, if there be any, lies solely in this, that the particles composing the latter are incomparably smaller and possess a higher velocity. To these two qualifications I chiefly attribute the non-deflectibility by a magnet which I believe will be disproved in the end. Both kinds of rays, however, affect the sensitive plate and fluorescent screen, only the rays discovered by Roentgen are much more effective. We know now that these rays are produced under certain exceptional conditions in a bulb, the vacuum being extremely high, and that the range of greatest activity is rather small.

"I have endeavored to find whether the reflected rays possess certain distinctive features, and I have taken pictures of various objects with this purpose in view, but no marked difference was noted in any case. I therefore conclude that the matter composing the Roentgen rays does not suffer further degradation by impact against bodies. One of the most important tasks for the experimenter remains still to determine what becomes of the energy of these rays. In a number of experiments with rays reflected from and transmitted through a conducting of insulating plate, I found that only a small part of the rays could be accounted for. For instance, through a zinc plate, one-sixteenth of an inch thick, under an incident angle of 45 degrees, about two and one-half per cent were reflected and about three per cent transmitted through the plate, hence over 94 per cent of the total radiation remain to be accounted for. All the tests which I have been able to make have confirmed Roentgen’s statement that these rays are incapable of raising the temperature of a body. To trace this lost energy and account for it in a plausible way will be equivalent to making a new discovery.

"Since it is now demonstrated that all bodies reflect more or less, the diffusion through the air is easily accounted for. Observing the tendency to scatter through the air, I have been led to increase the efficiency of reflectors by providing not one, but separated successive layers for reflection, by making the reflector of thin sheets of metal, mica or other substances. The efficiency of mica as a reflector I attribute chiefly to the fact that it is composed of many superimposed layers which reflect individually. These many successive reflections are, in my opinion, also the cause of the scattering through the air.

"In my communication to you of April 1, I have for the first time stated that these rays are composed of matter in a “primary” or elementary condition or state. I have chosen this mode of expression in order to avoid the use of the word “ether,” which is usually understood in the sense of the Maxwellian interpretation, which would not be in accord with my present convictions in regard to the nature of the radiations.”

—Nikola Tesla

“TESLA’S LATEST ROENTGEN RAY INVESTIGATIONS.” The Electrical Review, April 22nd, 1896.

drnikolatesla:

Tesla was displaying the first alternating current motors that we still use today for power, and was also doing wizardry lighting wireless light bulbs like a fucking Jedi. The concept was so far ahead of its time that the people in the auditorium literally started panicking and running out the doors because they thought he was doing the devil’s work. His demonstrations would introduce the basic principles to the wireless transmission of energy we all use today in our everyday lives.

Curie is a hard second! She cool!

Tesla was displaying the first alternating current motors that we still use today for power, and was also doing wizardry lighting wireless light bulbs like a fucking Jedi. The concept was so far ahead of its time that the people in the auditorium literally started panicking and running out the doors because they thought he was doing the devil’s work. His demonstrations would introduce the basic principles to the wireless transmission of energy we all use today in our everyday lives.